Water Softener Automatic Head
Descales don’t remove lime from the water, but it changes the composition of it to prevent further build-up after descaling took place.
The real risk lies in that it can start building up again, which is the reason your geyser and other electrical accessories will continue to break.
If “descaled” water lies still for too long or it gets above a certain degree of heat (as in a geyser), the lime may start building up again. Lime accumulates in its natural form, therefore, looking for any disturbance opportunity to go back to the same pattern of accumulation.
We recommend descales for irrigation purposes, as cold water gets treated by descaling over longer periods.
Houses and other buildings do not normally use water constantly, thus making it hard for descaling to be done properly.
Descaling is a slow process and, in most cases, high-intensity lime deposits will not all be treated.
Water softeners are the most effective systems to remove hardness from water and in case of a booster pump being used from the water tank to the building, a high-pressure automatic water softener can be installed after the pressure pump.
Lime is physically removed by resin from the water, then washed off and excreted during the regeneration process. Lime and magnesium minerals that cause hardness, together with the salt (sodium minerals) are all excreted during regeneration and do not go through to the building.
FUNDAMENTALS OF WATER SOFTENING
“Hard water explained”
As rain falls through the atmosphere, it often adsorbs traces of acidic gases from the air (carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, etc.). When the water reaches the ground, it percolates through the soil and dissolves certain soil components. The greater the acidity of the rain water, the more soil material dissolved. Ground waters (wells, springs) and surface waters (rivers, lakes, and oceans) contain a certain amount of dissolved matter. Many of these substances are chemical compounds, which can dissolve in water to form electrically charged particles called ions.
Two of the most commonly occurring ions in natural waters are calcium and magnesium. Both are positively charged ions called cations, and each carries two unit charges. The presence of these two minerals in natural water causes “hardness”, which produces a scum or curd with soap, and forms a hard scale in piping and water heaters. Other cations present in natural waters may include sodium, potassium, iron and other metallic components, but primarily calcium and magnesium make water “hard”.
Problems associated with hard water can be minimized by using a water softener. Conventional softeners operate on the principle of ion exchange. The most common ion exchange method used today is the sodium cycle operation. In this process, calcium and magnesium ions are removed by exchanging places on an ion exchange resin with sodium. This process is commonly known as positive ion or cation exchange. Negatively charged ions from the source water remain. Softening does not reduce total dissolved solids; it exchanges the “troublesome” hardness ions for sodium ions. To avoid potentially coating the ion exchange resin with colloidal or suspended material, clear water should be applied to the softener. Water supplies containing very high amounts of other ions or contaminants may need to be pre-treated before being applied to a softener.
“How it works”
Cation resin beads, less than 0.5mm in diameter, are insoluble in water and have a negative electrical charge. The resin beads are where the exchange of ions actually occurs. Cation resin beads attract positively charged ions like a magnet. It holds them until the beads are exposed to another cation for which it has a greater attraction. Generally, an exchange site on the resin will have a naturally greater affinity for a cation with a larger or denser charge. At the beginning of the water softening cycle, the resin beads are covered with single charged sodium (Na+) ions.
This is done by rinsing them in a sodium chloride (brine) solution. These resin beads are typically contained in a pressurized vessel called a water-softening resin tank. The untreated hard water enters the resin tank, passes through the bed of resin and flows out to meet service demands.
The negatively charged resin beads have a greater attraction for the two positive charges in each ion of calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) than they do for the single positive charge of the sodium (Na+) ion. Therefore, sodium ions on the resin beads will be displaced by the calcium and magnesium ions. In effect the resin beads “exchange” the sodium ions for the “hard water” ions, allowing “soft” water to flow from the resin tank.
There is an area within the resin bed where hard water is in the process of becoming softened, because ion exchange requires time to occur. This is called the reaction zone. The size of the reaction zone depends on factors such as hardness, flow rate, other total dissolved solids, and resin particle size. When the resin bed has no more sodium ions for calcium or magnesium ions to exchange with, it is considered exhausted. To replenish the desired exchange capability, the water softener must be regenerated.
The resin bed is backwashed before the regeneration cycle begins. Water is passed through the resin bed in the opposite direction of normal flow. Backwashing flushes suspended matter from the ion exchange resin out of the tank to a drain. Backwashing also loosens the resin bed which can become compacted during the softening cycle. The backwash cycle typically lasts for 10 minutes
Next, the resin beads are flushed with a sodium chloride solution commonly known as brine. Concentrated brine is drawn from the brine tank and blended with fresh water as it is delivered to the resin tank. Although the resin beads prefer calcium and magnesium ions, the overwhelming concentration of sodium ions overcomes this affinity. The sodium ions in the brine solution force the calcium and magnesium ions off the beads and they are discharged to a drain. This brine flushing process requires about 10 to 30 minutes, depending upon the amount of brine required to replenish the exchange capability.
Next, fresh water continues to slowly flush through the resin bed. This helps extend the resin and brine contact time while rinsing out the brine solution. The slow rinse cycle lasts about 30 minutes. The last portion of the regeneration cycle is a fast rinse or purge cycle. Rinsing at a higher flow rate ensures no brine solution remains in the tank before returning the softener to service. The fast rinse cycle lasts about 5 minutes. The entire regeneration cycle requires about 1½ hours. The actual frequency of this regeneration process is mainly determined by the amount of ion exchange resin in the softener, the amount of brine used in the regeneration, the hardness of the water, and the water usage.
“Soft water quality”
“Soft water” is generally defined as having less than one grain per gallon (17.1mg/l) of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions. The quality of the softened water refers to the amount of hardness still remaining after passage through the ion exchange resin. The amount of salt used to regenerate the exchange material governs both its hardness removal capacity and the water quality. Each cubic foot of resin has an ion-exchange capacity of 30,000 grains of hardness when regenerated with 15 pounds of salt. A lower salt dosage of 6 pounds will yield a softening capacity of 20,000 grains per cubic foot. The lower salt dosage is more efficient, but requires more frequent regenerations. The total dissolved salts (TDS) content of the water also influences the effective softening capacity of a water softener. TDS content is the sum of all the ions present in the water. It varies for each water supply.
Highly mineralized waters tend to reduce the efficiency of a softener and therefore should be considered when selecting the salt setting. If the TDS limitations are not observed, some passage of hardness into the product water can occur. In situations where the conditioned water is used for general purposes, soft water quality is not critical. Slight traces of hardness don’t influence the overall operation and are ignored. When the TDS level is low, lower salt dosages are recommended for general use to provide the greatest operating economy. Although more frequent regenerations would be required, the operation is normally fully automatic.
“Typical uses for softening”
Reduction of scale build-up from hard water for: boiler and cooling tower pre-treatment, laundry operations, ware-washing in foodservice, vehicle wash, manufacturing processes, and pre-treatment for other water treatment applications such as reverse osmosis and deionization.
Untreated water can cause: increased utility bills, higher operating costs, decreased equipment efficiency and life; increased use of detergents and chemicals, reduction in linen life, dingy laundry, and increased boiler blow-downs and downtime.
The Automatic Water Softener fitted with Clack simplex timer controller, series is fully automatic and does not have to be regenerated physically as the unit regenerates automatically. To regenerate automatically the unit needs 220 Volt electricity and a minimum water pressure of 1.5 bar, or a head height of 15 meters (45 feet). If the pressure from the tank is insufficient, the unit will regenerate inadequately, and a pressure booster pump must be used. The pressure booster pump must be installed before the water softener unit. This will ensure pressure on the control and also through out the house to all taps. The Automatic Water Softener mode fitted with Clack simplex timer controller also comes in various models that differ in size: 14000 Litres Per Cycle 20000 Litres Per Cycle (and bigger) The most popular unit of the automatic water softener mode fitted with clack simplex timer controller series, for water from boreholes with aboce average hardness, is the which is able to soften extremely high lime (calcium) content completely. For a high usage of water above average hardness we recommend the model . The automatic water softener mode fitted with clack simplex timer controller offers the most advanced water softeners. These regenerate more effectively, and use only 5kg of the salt that is drawn from the brine-tank. The water softener withdraws all positive ions from the water - ie: calcium (lime), magnesium salts and dissolved minerals that cause hardness. The soft water compares favourably with rain water and offers much pleasure and advantages for household and human use.
Automatic Water Softener model fitted with Clack simplex timer controller(PS) series high performance water softeners guarantee a wide range of features and control options to satisfy your needs, High quality fabrication materials and manufacturing conditions guarantee a superior product. These softeners designed to be high Quality hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) removal in various water treatment applications. The Automatic Water Softener model 255-450 fitted with Clack simplex timer controller(PS) series are designed and fabricated for domestic, commercial, and industrial applications. The standard vessels used are vertical cylindrical design of fiber-glass reinforced polyester material and all used vessels are in line with International testing and certification agencies such as NSF & ASME. All Softeners are sized in accordance to optimum recommended flux rates for optimum efficiency and performance. The Softeners unit equipped with a fully automatic self contained control valve (body made by glass felled norly) using a cartridge design permitting instant service with timer to automatically control the Softeners regeneration and rinse cycle on a pre set schedule, regeneration and rinse cycles are factory set to accommodate site conditions. Automatic Water Softener model fitted with Clack simplex timer controller(PS) series designed with magnum CV , CV+ osmonics or “CLACK” control valve according with softener tank size and demand flow rate for optimal performance. softener tank suitable for a working pressure of 689 KPa (100 psi) and tested at 50 % in excess of the working pressure, 100% corrosion resistant high performance composite and fibre-glass reinforced polyester construction, The inner shell of softeners are both temperature and chemical resistant and shell height design to allow a minimum free board space of 100% of the resin bed depth for adequate expansion during regeneration cycle with maximum pressure drop (8) psi.
The Automatic Water Softener model fitted with Clack simplex timer controller(PS) series are designed with self cleaning distributors exhibit excellent flow rates and are cleaned automatically by the pressure of the water flow during the rinse cycle, and riser tube with large diameter to allow higher flow rates for optimum water production whenever required. A water softener reduces hardness in water by removing the calcium and magnesium ions in the water, and replacing them with sodium ions, which do not lead to any form of scale build-up or precipitation. A standard water softener consists of 2 vessels. The first vessel contains a sodium coated zeolite ion exchange resin. Water passes through the resin vessel under pressure, flowing over the softener resin, which attracts the calcium and magnesium ions to its surface, exchanging them for sodium ions. Once the softener resin has reached the end of its service cycle and can hold no more calcium and magnesium, the water softener automatically starts a regeneration cycle, drawing a solution of brine from the second vessel, the brine tank, into the softener resin vessel. The brine solution washes the softener resin, causing the calcium and magnesium ions to be washed to drain, and the resin to be regenerated with sodium ions. After a period of time (90-180 minutes, depending on the softener size and configuration), the resin vessel automatically rinses itself with clean water and switches back into service, ready to start softening water again. The system also automatically adds more water to the salt in the brine tank to produce more brine for the next regeneration cycle. All water softeners supplied by 4 Ever Pure Water are fully automatic. The only operator assistance required is the addition of salt to the softener's brine tank occasionally.